ISSN: 1817-5880

Volume 33, Issue 33

Volume 33, Issue 33, Summer 2017, Page 0-186

The Future of Energy Sector in Iraq (Energy Strategy for 2012-2030)

Amjad Sabah Abdul alli; Ahmed Jakhyour Douwa

Gulf Economist, Volume 33, Issue 33, Pages 1-50

The Iraqi Government has prepared an Integrated National Energy Strategy with the supporting of the World Bank and under supervision of a committee of the Iraqi Council of Ministers in cooperation with the Ministries of Oil , Electricity, Planning , Finance, Industry, Mining and Environment to develop the energy sectors (Oil , natural gas) to increasing its production of crude oil and the establishment of new refineries to meet the growing demand for oil products, as well as the development of investment facilities associated and free natural gas , and providing employment opportunities and achieve huge financial returns to the public budget.

Desertification and Stalinization in Iraq's economic and raised with particular reference to the province of Basrah, for the period (2004-2015)

Sikna Jahya Faraj; Tagreed Qasim Mohamed

Gulf Economist, Volume 33, Issue 33, Pages 51-81

Desertification is the degradation of soil in dry and semi-arid areas. It is produced by human activity which is inappropriate and climate change that prevalent in the world in general and in Iraq in particular. The proportion of agricultural land is estimated which suffer from salinization by 50% due to negligence for agriculture and irrigation. Land area which was covered by tree also decline because of the negligence of the previous authorities for this sector. The forests of the north were exposed to damage due to random cut and accompanied by thousands of villages burned . The number of palm trees also declined from about (30) million to about (12) million because of wars, lack of water, agricultural diseases, and neglect.
The forests and other plants have become an important factor in environmental degradation and are directed towards drought. The effects of desertification are wide-spread on the living environment and Basrah governate is affected by this phenomenon because of its dangerous dimensions since it is expanding annually in different directions ,as well as their sphere of influence in the environmental and economic situation which continues to expand in Basrah .
The research aims to state the environmental and economic impacts of desertification and its forms in Iraq in general and Basrah in particular. Also, ways of treatments and it aims to reduce desertification in the province of Basrah. The research has reached an important conclusion is the need to spread environmental awareness by establishing centers and organizations which are specialized in combating desertification through cooperation between those centers and scientific institutions to reduce the spread of desertification.

Unbalanced of random linear models ( Case study unbalance of random two way classification linear model with interaction )

Fatima Hashim Falhi

Gulf Economist, Volume 33, Issue 33, Pages 82-102

This study deals with the exact tests of the randomized unbalanced linear model with the interaction and the estimation of the components of the variance , which can be derived using ANOVA table using the analysis of the partial variance precisely based on the central F distribution .
The applied side based on real data of one of the agricultural experiments for the development of the yellow corn crop in Iraq in 2005.Five random fertilization treatments were randomly selected and distributed to four randomly selected sites .The sample size in each experimental unit differed from one treatment to another and from one location to another unbalance . The results of the analysis were obtained after the harmonic mean scale was used to address the unbalanced and use the weighted method in the analysis rather than normal method.

Effects Economic and financial crises in the Iraqi economy

Naji Sari Fars

Gulf Economist, Volume 33, Issue 33, Pages 103-131

Affected economic activity in various countries around the world Negatively or positively, with many crises, including economic crises, Political and natural, and there are social crises . As some of the crises That occur negatively on the country or several countries, and observe Others from these countries crises affect positively, by exploiting this Crisis and take advantage of the weaknesses that have occurred and Processing, and turn them into strengths through the exploitation of Natural and human resources and proper planning for by drawing a Successful economic policy . An example of this rise in oil prices Positively affect the economies of oil exporting countries, while the Drop in oil prices, it affects Aijaaaly importing economies him . The social Crises spread of disease, illiteracy negative impact on the countries Where these diseases are spread, and there are countries working on The discovery of treatments to eliminate these diseases, and so the case For every crisis of this crisis, but the types of crises differ in developed Countries than in developing countries. The Iraqi economy has passed Many crises affecting direct impact, because of its geographical and Economic position of Iraq . And the crisis in the floods that destroyed Most of the farmland that have occurred in the recent past, and after The Iraq war came - Iran, which is the major crisis that stretched the Iraqi economy, and the crisis in the first Gulf War, and after the crisis, The economic blockade, which has impacted on the economic, social And environmental life and in turn resulted in this crisis to increase Deaths and illnesses and the high unemployment and poverty rates, leading to a decline in the standard of living of the individual in Iraq. Came the second Gulf War, which brought down the previous regime, Increased the suffering of Iraq and its economy, which depends on oil Revenues . So these crises led to the migration of many scientific Competencies. And it increased suffering through looting which led to The sabotage of economic sectors, and the smuggling of most of the Equipment and machinery abroad . The most important crises which Have a direct impact economically, socially and culturally, battle Terrorism Aldaasha on Iraq . Therefore , one of the main causes of The Iraqi economy stumbled in previous years and the absence of Proper planning economic program in various economic sectors .

Evaluation of Labor Market Performance Economic Indicators in Iraq

Elham Khazaal Nashour

Gulf Economist, Volume 33, Issue 33, Pages 132-169

The subject of labor market is one of the important topics that have received great attention in analysis and economic studies due to its importance for the individual and community as it focuses on the working manpower considering it as a basic production factor.
This importance is not limited at the local level, only but extends to the international level to take a broader level associated with the concept of economic development. One example of its significance is the ensuring work for each person who wants it .considering work as a natural right of every citizen and a condition of preserving dignity . but under current Iraqi economy circumstances and what its suffering from distortions and structural imbalances ,such as downturn, economic sectors, particularly agricultural and industrial sector, so as a result of circumstances of war and embargo that Iraq witnessed, this situation has led to end of a number of agriculture and industrial projects, and deterioration of infrastructure needed for these sectors, which weakened of the ability of labor market to find a new jobs: constrained from the demand for labor .With the increasing in population size , the supply of work force recently entering labor market has increased, which means, the labor supply is growing at a even higher rate than labor demand. this imbalances between supply and demand labor caused of growing the phenomenon of unemployment, which from one of the most important problems facing labor market in Iraq.

The Usage of Markov Chains Model in Bad Debts Management : Applied Study in An Investment Bank of Iraq, Branch of Basrah

Muna Tahir Ghafil

Gulf Economist, Volume 33, Issue 33, Pages 170-186

The management of bad debts with Iraqi banks is a major problem, but can be considered as a matter of the time and is the focus of banks in all countries in the world in an attempt to find appropriate solutions to them. This study dealt with the study and analysis the importance of applying the Markov chains model in the Iraqi Investment Bank branch Basra Digital results are important and useful to the bank in managing its debts. The model provides a future perspective on the status of non-performing loans, helps to develop debt management plans and policies to ensure profits and maintain liquidity, and finally provides digital data that can track borrowers and impose additional penalties commensurate with the value of the debt and the delay.