Volume 31, Issue 26, Autumn 2015, Page 1-174
Volume 31, Issue 26, Pages 1-36
An Unemployment counts one of the most serious problems that faces the Iraq economy, Where it has been recorded high averages (four folds or more) of the normal average of the unemployment .The Unemployment was the main reason of occurrence and rise of the unemployment averages inveterate structural imbalance that comes from the output structure, imbalance of trade and imbalance of business markets in Iraq. By using (ARDL) model discerns that there is a long-run co-integrations between independent and dependent variables. (ARDL) model explained the effect and morale of variables and its flexibility degree. The study has been concluded with some recommendations and conclusions.
Volume 31, Issue 26, Pages 37-73
The Arab Gulf States own huge oil resources, which are the most important sources of energy and raw material for many industries. And any changes in the international oil prices will influence the development process in these economies. However, due to the crucial role of GCC in the international oil market and the importance of its oil policies in maintaining a balanced global oil market and the importance of oil revenues to the economies of GCC as a major source of the public budget. Hence, the growth rates and investment of other economic sectors are reliant on the oil export revenues. The objective of this paper is to identify the factors that affect the international oil prices and its influences on the exporter countries. The study revealed that the GCC countries must abide by the decisions of OPEC and its production quotas in order to maintain rights of other oil producing countries and avoid to exceed level of limited oil quotas and declining level of oil prices.
Volume 31, Issue 26, Pages 74-99
Despite of availability of many constituents in agriculture in Iraq, However, these constituents are facing a lot of problems that make them in a level doesn't fit with the rising of size of the productivity of the agriculture sector for the advancement of the Iraqi economy.
The focus of this research is on the obstacles faced by the elements of Iraqi agriculture . In order to diagnose problems of the agriculture sector and develop a strategy requires the combined efforts of state and private sector to provide support and plans to develop this vital sector for Iraq.
The Nature of compatibility between Development and Human Rights from Socialism Indicators … In Iraq as model
Volume 31, Issue 26, Pages 100-140
Demonstration convergence between development and human rights emerges due to their roles for better life through securing all its requirements. The indicators which represent this, is that, the social indicators such as health, education and adequate housing. However, availability of health services implies mitigation of hazards ratio which could be faced by human via diseases. Hence, it will lead to life expectancy and improves in its ability. While the education services, it also will influence positively by improving the cognitive level and then expanding job opportunities. In respect of adequate housing, as an ideal place for all family, social, cultural and religious activities, where it is a unique place that protect human from others, or from violation of weather. Accordingly, availability of all said three services, health, education and housing consider main targets which ought to be achieved by the development. It is, therefore, an essential right of human being and not be waived.
In Iraq, and based on the mentioned indicators, it was noted that a shortage in the level of health services, this case requested an expanded strategy to be adopted for reinforcement level of health system and its infrastructure, as well as, renewing medical equipment and supplies, and rebuild health system alongside to improving efficiency of medical workforces in the areas of prevention and treatment diseases. Furthermore, evolution medical academic research institutions and centers in accordance to the international level.
In respect of education, this sector faced various problems, and in order to solve it, mandatory education and literacy should be practiced and increased number of school buildings, employees and improving level of salaries and wages. As well as, reconsidering level of curriculum based on the international trend.
Volume 31, Issue 26, Pages 141-174
Iran is one of oil and natural gas exporter countries, and there are productive sectors contributes on the increase of level of income in Iran via diversification of Iran exports for various consuming and producing goods with developing countries. The Iranian government has sought to liberalize its foreign trade, this has led to improve the economy though eliminating quantitative restrictions on trade. As known, one of the factors that affect the Iranian economic structure is the export. However, this could lead to a change in the balance of payment and exchange rate balance of Iran as a developing country which reliance on import of export of different commodities and services. Therefore, this paper investigates the reality of foreign trade and its future horizon in Iran. However, the progress of Iranian foreign trade comes from big efforts devoted in successful economic development plans.
Besides, the international trade has a big significance which is different for country to another country, where it is considered a unique way to meet various needs of goods and services. Based on that, the economic power of a country is derived from its export, and the surplus of trade balance comes from diversified exports alongside with reducing level of import. However, the foreign trade of Iran with developing countries comes from oil export and other consuming and capital goods. In turn, it import some essential resources for to develop different economic sectors in order to mitigate its imports. Consequently, this study focuses the future horizons of Iranian foreign trade which depend on technological progress for various activities of economic sectors in Iran and what are the developing country partners of Iran? And also what are the kinds of export and import between Iran and other developing countries.