ISSN: 1817-5880

Volume 30, Issue 24

Volume 30, Issue 24, Autumn 2013, Page 1-331

The Use Nets of Artificial Neural Networks to Predict of Macroeconomic Multidimensional model in Iraq 1996 to 2007”

Assist . Prof. Dr. Fouzai Khalib Omer; Azeem Abudl- Khareem Ali; Prof . Dr. Abudl

Gulf Economist, Volume 30, Issue 24, Pages 1-38

The research presented a new mechanism in determining the relations
quantity among the economic variables, which show their behavior for the
individuals. It is meant the analysis or analyzing the estimateous as a
It is clear that any model or any function or data could express about in
the shape of time series, that used in describing the subjects of estimation
through the weights of all past series or other variables.
The regression method has been used to estimate the shape variables
besides, it is used the tests which used to know if the regression can
explain the behavior of the independent variables.
In the shadow of environment of the program which compound the
Neurons cells Net the problem of study determined. Also it is tried to
compound suitable Neurons Nets and Kha warzaimian automatic algorithm
in order to teach and train the Net to reduce the deviations by controlling
the values of weights.

Knowledge Economy Reality In GCC Countries According to Digital Content Indicators

Dr. Yahya Hmud Hasan

Gulf Economist, Volume 30, Issue 24, Pages 39-74

Research importance comes from the significant role of the digital
economy to change the mode of production, growth factors, the large
gap between the countries of the world, and the Gulf Cooperation
Council trying to work on the development of knowledge economy
indicators to reduce this gap between them and the developed
countries and take advantage of features offered by the electronic
The research plan:
The research dealt with conceptual framework of knowledge
economy and its importance in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC),2T
the 2Tresearch includes digital content indicators in GCC which was
divided into three readiness , density, and the result effect ,the
research mentioned the digital economy applications such as ecommerce
and e-government, 8Tvirtual8T electronic library ,media
,entertainment and e-health finally the research concluded
conclusions and recommendations

Economic Diversification In Arab Gulf Countries Rules and Guidelines Approoch

Atif Lafi Merzuk

Gulf Economist, Volume 30, Issue 24, Pages 75-122

Diversification is the study concerned with how to reduce
reliance on onesource of in come .That diversification needs to
provide basic conditions8T12T, 8T12TAlchrok tbasic capabilities are human
andphysical capacity and financial8T12T, as well as 8T12Tconditions of the
task is how to act in countries with an economic focus in the
management of the surplus of money.This study focused on
these conditions and put evidence and indicators by which to
understand the degree of diversification of the economy .Applied
study was conducted on the Persian Gulf countries and the study
found significant results in predicting which states will be more

The Importance of E-Commerce and Constraints in12T The Gulf Cooperation 12TCouncil12T 12T(12TGCC) Economies

haitham Abdullah Salman; Amjed Sabah Abul Ali

Gulf Economist, Volume 30, Issue 24, Pages 123-169

The possession of the GCC to 16Tdeveloped 16Tinfrastructure which
means that e-readiness may become available and there is a great
opportunity for capital investment and development in the new digital
world economy, e-readiness has become a standard to describe the
ability of the country to participate in the activities of 26Te-commerce 12T26Tat12T26T
12T26Tvarious12T26T 12T26Tlevels12T26T 12T26Tand patterns,12T26T 12T26Tcomponents 12Tanalysis will show clearly the
nature of the appropriate information infrastructure to the
requirements of e-commerce , the excellent level of e-readiness which
Arab Emirates uniquely characterized with 12Tamong 12TGCC Means that
there is 12Tcomplete12T 12Treadiness to suitable 12Teconomic environment for
electronic commerce .The good level which is characterized by
Bahrain, Qatar and Kuwait Is an indication that there is a need to
moderate improvements,26T 16T26Tthe average level of both Saudi Arabia and
Oman indicate that there is 12T16Tan urgent need for12T16T 12T16Tsubstantial
improvements12T16T 12T16Tto upgrade12T16T 12T16Tthe12T16T 12T16Tcomponents12T16T 12T16Tof12T16T 12T16Tinformation12T16T 12T16Tand12T16T
12T16Tcommunication, to reach to suitable digital environment for 12Tecommerce

Immigration and Labor Impact on Citizens Policies and Its Unemployment In GCC

Dr.Adnan Ferhan Al Jewarin

Gulf Economist, Volume 30, Issue 24, Pages 170-209

The rising of revenues of GCC countries especially after the
first oil shock 1973 and the second shock 1979 lead to import
thousands of foreign workers to participate in building and
develop infrastructure and economy, but the numbers of these
foreign workers still rising and the percentage of foreign workers
became the most percentage of gross work force, which lead to
rise unemployment rate between citizens of GCC, then these
countries follow some policies to replace national workers instead
of foreign workers in all sectors of economy. But these policies
still ineffective and need a lot to success. This paper try to analyze
reasons of citizen's unemployment and explain the efficiency of
policies that replace national workers instead of foreign workers.

Economic effects For the Establishment of the Kuwaiti Port “Mubarak” on Iraqi Ports

Mohamed Radhi Ja; afar

Gulf Economist, Volume 30, Issue 24, Pages 210-235

Trade and economic relations between Iraq and Kuwait before
the rule of the former regime was strong and solid Iraq was the
breadbasket of Kuwait, trade land ,sea transportand , Transit trade
flourished until 1959,and after Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait in
1990,relations became weak in trade between the two
countries,after the fall of the former regime ,the Kuwaiti economic
relations have evolved a lot in various economic fields due to the
geographical location of Kuwait,which makes it the main gate for
Iraq reconstruction and this is linked to the political stability in
Iraq,formation of a democratic Iraqi government believes in the
right of neighborliness and brotherhood and respect based on
common economic interests between the two countries,but Kuwait
still influenced by Iraq invasion and looking for control and
strangling Iraqi ports in the presence of foreign troops, s othis
weakens the security stability And hence it is an opportunity for
Kuwait to set up the important strategic projects that bring benefit
for the Kuwaiti economy

Fuzzy Expert System To Assess the Efficiency of Hospitals Performance

afar; Lecturer. Iqbal Jasim Ja

Gulf Economist, Volume 30, Issue 24, Pages 236-255

The process of administrationrequires continuous evaluation for
various departments of institutionsto achieve quality by knowing
the work efficiencyIn providing servicesfor beneficiaries,the
traditional methods usedin the evaluation no longer give a true
and accurate results,so systems designersturn to integrate artificial
intelligence techniquesin the various operations of the
administration including expert systems ,and by taking systems
designersin turn use other techniquesto address the
complexuncertain data ,where administrators need modern
methods to evaluate .One of these techniques,theory of fuzzy
logicpresented by thescientistLotfiZadeh in 1965.The research
aims to design an expert fuzzy system to determine hospitals
performance efficiency system adopted ‘Basra general hospital /
operations division’ as data baseusing Mamdani as a model
inobtaining results to determine the hospitalefficiency .

Integrative role for Internal Audit in the Effectiveness of Institutional Control

Lecturer. Ban Tawfiq Nejem

Gulf Economist, Volume 30, Issue 24, Pages 256-299

The study aims to identify theimportance of the auditrole
,being a foundation to institutional controlin light of the
separation between ownership and administration,contributing to
the examination and evaluationin internal control activities,
supplying administrationwith the necessaryinformation to achieve
control , protection and decision-makingat the right time. The
research dealt with theoretical framework of institutional
controlin terms of the concept and principle and the role of the
internal audit function in the form of institutional controlin the
practical side and testing the hypothesis search.The questionnaire
was adopted and distributed to a number of Iraqi banks and
companiesworking in the private sector,as well aslisted companies
in the Iraqi stock market, the research found that there is a need to
review the laws and regulations of Iraqi-related companiesto cope
withinternational practices and regulations of institutional
controland there is a need forsupervision and controlon
companiesconducting periodic evaluationto find out
thecommitment extent to the instructions of the reality of actual

Employment In the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Challenges and Solutions

Lecturer . Ban Ali Husein A-meshhedani

Gulf Economist, Volume 30, Issue 24, Pages 300-326

Arabian Gulf region has witnessed an economic recovery in
terms of domestic output growth,but this recovery, was not
effective in addressing the main problem which is high
unemployment,the labor market in the Gulf regionwitnessed
repletion in the supply sidedue to inappropriate economic growth
of manpower and importing manpower from abroad,and create
high-wage jobs in the public sector,allowing the private sector to
import low-wage workforce,we can attribute the reasons of this
satiety to women's entry into the labor , the migration of large
numbers of foreign workforce to gulf countries and population
growth in the Arab Gulf countries.