Keywords : Environment
Desertification and Stalinization in Iraq's economic and raised with particular reference to the province of Basrah, for the period (2004-2015)
Volume 33, Issue 33, Pages 51-81
Desertification is the degradation of soil in dry and semi-arid areas. It is produced by human activity which is inappropriate and climate change that prevalent in the world in general and in Iraq in particular. The proportion of agricultural land is estimated which suffer from salinization by 50% due to negligence for agriculture and irrigation. Land area which was covered by tree also decline because of the negligence of the previous authorities for this sector. The forests of the north were exposed to damage due to random cut and accompanied by thousands of villages burned . The number of palm trees also declined from about (30) million to about (12) million because of wars, lack of water, agricultural diseases, and neglect.
The forests and other plants have become an important factor in environmental degradation and are directed towards drought. The effects of desertification are wide-spread on the living environment and Basrah governate is affected by this phenomenon because of its dangerous dimensions since it is expanding annually in different directions ,as well as their sphere of influence in the environmental and economic situation which continues to expand in Basrah .
The research aims to state the environmental and economic impacts of desertification and its forms in Iraq in general and Basrah in particular. Also, ways of treatments and it aims to reduce desertification in the province of Basrah. The research has reached an important conclusion is the need to spread environmental awareness by establishing centers and organizations which are specialized in combating desertification through cooperation between those centers and scientific institutions to reduce the spread of desertification.
The Role of the Transport of Oil Pollution of the Environment in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Companies: (Saudi Arabia and Kuwait a model)
Volume 32, Issue 30, Pages 78-111
The transfer process from the main stages of the oil industry, and oil transportation haunted negative effects on the environment The Gulf states affected by the process when the transport of oil as a result of its heavy reliance him, which requires them to confront the damage with the latest tools. Turning research into several axes of the first to identify the conceptual framework of the economics of oil transportation and environmental impacts, and economic feasibility for the transfer of oil tankers and pipelines. The second axis Vttrq to the most important measures taken by the oil transport companies to protect the environment from pollution, as discussed in the third axis to the reality of oil transport in the Gulf Cooperation Council and the pricing and shipment exported by Maani, And eat fourth axis An Empirical Study of the role of the Kuwaiti oil companies and Saudi Arabia in the preservation of the environment from pollution; research found that increasing quantities transported directly proportional to the increase in production, which in turn achieves economic feasibility of investment in the field of transport; ; And that the importance of the Gulf region economically emerged through increasing the number of tankers and commercial traffic and demand for Gulf oil; and the impact of oil pollution is not only environmentally but also economically; negative Valtotar to transport oil to the Gulf environment that does not mean the abandonment of oil but confronting damaging all the modern means; And recommends research into the need for attention to economic and environmental plans for the Gulf States, so be on the oil companies operating and the countries that fall within the terms of trade in the field of oil transportation commitment legislation and laws that limit the major environmental impacts; the need for energy for transport set for the tanker and the economies of scale commitment, and determine the water balance levels and periodic follow-up of the pipeline to avoid leaks and spills and to ensure the continuity of the development of the oil industry.