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Scientific journal issued semi-annual year two issues concerned with economic affairs in the Gulf region
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Journal Information

Publisher: Basrah University

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Haitham Abdullah Salman

ISSN: 1817-5880

Ramifications of the World Financial Crises on GCC and the Role of Fiscal Policy

Dhaidan Tawirish Hashim

Gulf Economist, Volume 33, Issue 34, Pages 1-19

A clear fact for the GCC countries is the dominance of the oil sector in the economies of those countries, especially with regard to the elements of the budget, so it used to link the level of public expenditure with the expected revenue from the oil sector in the past, but in the recent global financial crisis 2007, In a different context, the correlation of fiscal policy, particularly the agreement, reflected strong links to these crises through expansionary policies in the opposite direction of the economic cycle. This study attempts to find out the reasons behind this policy and its role in dealing with the deflation of the GCC countries The previous study concluded that the previous crises were being dealt with by a policy of deflationary spending, that is, the fiscal policy was affected by the economic activity and is ineffective. As for dealing with the repercussions of the recent financial crisis, the fiscal policy followed is described as influential in economic activity, But its impact is going abroad

Environmental Sustainability Strategy and its Role in Ensuring the Continuous Improvement Of The Performance Of the University Enterprise Survey : study at sample of the universities and colleges of teaching staff in the Basrah Governorate

Abdulridha Naser Mohsin

Gulf Economist, Volume 33, Issue 34, Pages 20-42

The aim of the research is to ensure continuity of continuous improvement of the performance of the university institution through the use of the environmental sustainability strategy towards continuous review of the performance of the university institution. To achieve this goal, a questionnaire was prepared by a group of specialized professors, A study of a sample of government and private colleges in Basrah Governorate. The research was based on the integration of the deductive and inductive methods. The analysis and the accepted structure used the logical evidence in the theoretical side of the research. The quantitative analysis on the field side, Vision through the methods of descriptive statistics and some of the causal methods of statistics relating to the requirements of field study analysis, research reached an important set of conclusions and recommendations, and the most important university institutions lack a clear vision for the application of environmental sustainability strategy path.

The Impact of the Organizational Justice on the Proliferation of the Phenomenon of Administrative Corruption

Mustafa Taha; Abdaulla K. Mohmmed

Gulf Economist, Volume 33, Issue 34, Pages 43-63

In the light of the outcome of the results of the exploratory study, the problem of this research is the impact of the organizational justice on the spread of the phenomenon of corruption at the tax Department in the province of Basra.
The objective of this research is to answer the following questions:
1. Is there a consequence for the absence of organizational justice on the spread of the phenomenon of corruption at the tax Department, such as embezzlement, bribery and exploitation of the post.
2. What are the most prevalent instances of administrative corruption in the tax Department in question ?
3. In the light of the answer to the previous question, can the researcher develop a strategy that might fight corruption and root it out or eliminate it.
It has also been given in this paper a theoretical background about the concept of the organizational justice as of its three types and the influencing factors on the staff's awareness workers to the organizational justice.
It also introduces a theoretical background about the concept of a administrative corruption and its characteristics, its causes and effects .
Some of other countries experiences in the ways of tackling corruption have been viewed in order to eliminate it and eradicate it.
At the end of the research , the findings of the research were presented the findings , out of which the researcher presented a set of recommendations that may fit with the nature of the results that have been reached out.

The Impact of Using Sigma on Reducing Cost : A Case Study in the Public Company for Fertilizer Industry – Khor Al Zubair Plant

Kifah Jabbar Hassan

Gulf Economist, Volume 33, Issue 34, Pages 64-87

Six sigma is a modern approach that helps to achieve high quality because it aims to get as close as possible to workmanship and reach the zero defect by reducing the percentage of loss and reduce the chances of the appearance of defective units thus it Working on verification to satisfaction of the customer, The increase in the level of sigma decreased the number of defects thus reduced costs in general and quality costs in particular. However, the problem lies in the fact that a large number of Iraqi companies, especially industrial ones, have not adopted this method and may not have an awareness of its importance and how it works.
The general company for petrochemical fertilizers in Basra was selected as a field to demonstrate the feasibility of applying this method. It was found that by applying six sigma the percentage of defects in production will be 6.67% and 92.4% accuracy. This will reduce the cost of failure because it is directly related to the company's sigma .

The Role of Education in Economic Development in Iraq for the period (2004-2015)

Sakna. j . Faraj

Gulf Economist, Volume 33, Issue 34, Pages 88-116

The education in all his stages and levels considered the basic tool in development growth the human element or so-what called investment in human financial capital ,and the education system in Iraq is governmentally and for all stages the government provide members bodies educational and educational supplies and recently established number of private universities in high educational stage which participate in implemented professional organization and the operation of development the education must be continuous and including for all his members and ingredients to face the social ,economic, cultural changes and achieve the demands of development and the study has been reached that educational budget investment don’t composed the many which mean that high ratio spend as salaries and wages as for the investment project don’t receive only a little , and it is reflects the reality of the link between the structure of the education and the government. there must be real politic for growth to reduce the ratio of illiteracy poverty and unemployment with the increase of population so must provide money and necessary facilities for the educational system with all stages , to attract the male/female teachers who have intellectual and social super- capabilities and for the government it must try to absorb unemployment through employ producers and qualified members ,also the economic policy must depend on the wealth distribution equally on all the members of community to eliminate on the poverty for best education.

The Iraqi economy in light of the rent dominance and the requirements of economic diversification for the period (2003-2015)

Musab Abdel - Thamer Hussein; Salem Abdel-Hassan Risan

Gulf Economist, Volume 33, Issue 34, Pages 117-181

The past decades of the Iraqi economy have proved that the dominance of the oil sector has not been reflected in positive results and no structural changes have taken place in its structure. The increasing reliance on this resource has made the Iraqi economy constantly subject to price fluctuations in world oil markets, which has reflected directly on Economic performance retraction and the exacerbation of the structural imbalances that create a state of economic instability. In fact, the dominance of this oil resource with this degree represents a defect in economic system administration ,therefore it is important to adopt an effective economic policies and strategies to diversify the sources of income and reform the structure of the economic sectors and change their infrastructure.

Foreign Labor in the Gulf Cooperation Council states (A case Study of the United Arab Emirates

Assist Lecturer. Suhad Ahmed Rashid

Gulf Economist, Volume 26, Issue 17, Pages 171-210

The need for foreign labor was situation to be in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), especially after the rise in oil prices since the seventies of the twentieth century as a result of the ambitious plans adopted by the Council in that period. Therefore, they attract skilled foreign workers and ordinary by the desire to provide modern life for citizens and create Suitable conditions for expansion in infrastructure projects and various other services. As the national employment is not available in all the (GCC) states, in suitable quantity and quality, for Economic and social development projects. The need emerged for foreign labor to multiple sources, including Arab and foreign, and are increasing employment year after another year, as the number of people in the GCC states 35 million people with rate of 37% of them foreign labor. we find that the problem of foreign labor in the States Council Cooperation is the problem unsolved so far as, it can not dispense with the Gulf Cooperation Council on that employment there is no alternative to national employment in addition to accept foreign workers to pay far less acceptable, including a citizen of that State in addition to a capacity and skill to work with foreign labor, the Although the Gulf Cooperation Council attention rehabilitation programs and training of the national workforce.
Foreign labor have played in the UAE in the wake of the oil flow and returns a significant role in the process of accelerating economic development by establishing the infrastructure of the State of modern facilities and the provision of public services which were not available before, due to the small size of community population scarcity supply of labor force Local meet the growing needs of the work element, UAE economy faced in the early stages of development deficit in the labor force, operation and maintenance of infrastructure and social services, also the rapid expansion of the construction sector and related activities led to the acceleration in the demand for labor force flowing all levels and skills, The number of people at the end of 2006 approximately 5 million and 631 thousand inhabitants, the proportion of citizens UAE Limits 4.15% and the proportion of 2.18% of the total manpower in the country in general and be different between the seven emirates, but the high numbers of incoming manpower in the UAE state gives special status, since these contribute to employment in the rehabilitation of the economy through their remittances play. Despite the impact of these transfers have a negative impact on the economy of the UAE as well as the effects of cultural values and norms related to foreign labor, which could affect one way or another in the social fabric of the state in population composition.

Reality and Horizons of the Economic Co-operationbetween the EU and GCCS

Abbas Jabbar al-Shara

Gulf Economist, Volume 25, Issue 15, Pages 59-74

The GCCS take fast stops in achieving economic sharing with the EU since the eighties of last century. That relation is Union enjoys as an advantages of states with social prosperity.
The relation between the two sides is no more limited to mere commercial excharge , but it extends to enhancing sharing is rather vague now despite Oil and gas.

Knowledge Economy Reality In GCC Countries According to Digital Content Indicators

Dr. Yahya Hmud Hasan

Gulf Economist, Volume 30, Issue 24, Pages 39-74

Research importance comes from the significant role of the digital
economy to change the mode of production, growth factors, the large
gap between the countries of the world, and the Gulf Cooperation
Council trying to work on the development of knowledge economy
indicators to reduce this gap between them and the developed
countries and take advantage of features offered by the electronic
The research plan:
The research dealt with conceptual framework of knowledge
economy and its importance in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC),2T
the 2Tresearch includes digital content indicators in GCC which was
divided into three readiness , density, and the result effect ,the
research mentioned the digital economy applications such as ecommerce
and e-government, 8Tvirtual8T electronic library ,media
,entertainment and e-health finally the research concluded
conclusions and recommendations

The Role of State in Improving the Poverty in Iraq

Muntathar Fadhl Saad Albatat

Gulf Economist, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 12-46

In history ,the emergence of state have connected ,in its modern shape ,with the development which occurred in the political system in Europe since sixteenth century . In that time ,the state imposed its power on the feudalism princes and reduced its authority . Therefore , it emerge three types for the state .The first was the welfare state ,the second socialism ,and the third was the developing state . The role of state in society is considered to be very important ,especially in distribution the national income for the benefit of justice .
In Iraq there was and still there is no real role in dealing with the problem of poverty, reform the infrastructure and carrying out the justice . The research concentrated on the poverty and how to measure it in Iraq , in addition to showing the state role in Iraq economy . Also ,there was a connection between the state role in improving the poverty in Iraq and the decided strategies and policies to solve that , namely ;
-The Ration Card
- Redistribution of income
-Get rid of corruption
-Return of public sector role –
-Short – run Borrowing

Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Economies of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)

Amjed Sabah Abdulali

Gulf Economist, Volume 32, Issue 29, Pages 53-84

Since 2007, the effect of global financial crisis has varied in different degrees on the economies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), this is due to their linkage with the global economy. GCC countries are characterized in a high economic openness to the market economy. However, the crisis began influencing the financial sector, especially the stock markets and banking sector, the banking sector in GCC countries has faced a liquidity crisis and causes inability to grant loans for various development projects and reluctance many banks from granting loans or imposing high interest rates. As the sovereign funds, the Gulf cooperation Council has been subjected to significant losses in the value of real estate assets that were investing in the advanced industrial countries' markets, as well as, the effects of the crisis on the oil sector. Furthermore, the fluctuated prices in the international oil market and then the degree of economic growth, and direct and indirect investments shape the importance of this research due to the size of the financial losses faced by the economies of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Due to the financial crisis and economic openness of GCC economies, the author is motivated to set an assumption which assumes that the global financial crisis will be affected negatively on GCC countries. However, the study set several recommendations that could reduce the negative impact, such as applying teachings of the Islamic economy in light of the jurisprudence of the Islamic banking and financial markets, and take a non-cash actions that encourage consumption and private investment and the development of new and stringent conditions in granting of high values of loans and demand real guarantees, and activating the role of censorship Securities that have remained outside government control markets.

Markets of Derivetives And Its Role In Financial Globalization

Assist. Lecturer Iiham Khaz; el Nashoor; Dr. Mehdi Salih Hantoosh; Dr. Shaban Saddam ALemarah

Gulf Economist, Volume 27, Issue 18, Pages 12-66

The sudden turnovers that the financial markets witnessed recently, including the fluctuations in the rate of exchange, rate of interest, prices of commodities, and other assets have become one of the sailent phenomena in the world economy . These turnovers have resulted from the structural changes that the economy was exposed to those changes cover the assessment of rates of exchange and the collapse of the Briton woods system, and also the abolishment of limitations and obstacles in the flow of capital across borders .
These turnovers formed a serious danger threatening the world financial and bank organizations. The threat extended to their existence . For these reasons financial derivatives markets have come into being to form a new world based on the Financial Engineering .
The increasing significance of the new financial tools and their role in the movement of capital and comedies too, they have the major role in the globalization of financial activity worldwide so that they become an important pillar in the financial globalization.

The Reality of Scientific Research and Development in the GCC States

Haitham Abdullah Salman; Amjad Al-Sabah al-Asadi

Gulf Economist, Volume 25, Issue 15, Pages 184-222

The scientific research and development played an important role in the evolution process of the development in knowledge-based economies.It become one of the key features that drive economies around competition and technological development, but still the reality of scientific research and development in the GCC countries face significant challenges and obstacles, such as the inability to formulate clear policies and specific trends of development, the absence of mechanisms that link output research and development process, the absence of economic incentives for investment . The progress in the field of scientific projects and joint research, israther weak. The weak coordination or cooperation , either for quantitative indicators of the weak funds on research and development in the Gulf Cooperation Council and the proportion of scientific publishing and copyright is not very encouraging

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